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 KEEPING THE DEEN INTACT: TREASURING THE HADITH

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aliziad_sali
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PostSubject: KEEPING THE DEEN INTACT: TREASURING THE HADITH   Thu May 14, 2009 12:29 am

KEEPING THE DEEN
INTACT: TREASURING THE HADITH



We have undoubtedly sent down the Reminder, and We will
truly preserve it. [Surah Al-Hijr 15:9]

The above is a promise made by Allah Himself and it is therefore necessarily
fulfilled. This is attested to by all with regard to the Noble Qur’aan itself
but questions have been raised with regards to the hadith of the Prophet
(sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). It is ironic that those who question the
hadith often forget that the same transmitters of the Qur’aan which all Muslims
accept as authentic, also transmitted the hadith of the Prophet (‘alaihi salaat
wa salaam) and of course both came from his lips. The promise of Allah however
includes by necessity the hadith of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)
for it is the practical example of the implementation of Qur’aanic guidance and
neither the Qur’aan nor the Sunnah can be correctly understood without recourse
to the other. We hope to briefly outline the steps taken by the Muslims
throughout the ages to preserve the ahadith of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu
‘alaihi wa sallam) and insure their authenticity.

We have shown how Allah preserved the Qur’aan from being initially lost by the
martyrdom of its memorizers by guiding the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Khulafaa’u
Raashidoon) to compile the ayaat with the consensus of the companions
(radiallahu ‘anhum). Allah has similarly preserved the sunnah by enabling the
companions (radiallahu ‘anhum) and those after them to memorise, write down and
pass on the statements of the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his
way. Later as the purity of the knowledge of the sunnah became threatened,
Allah caused the Muslim nation to produce outstanding individuals possessing
incredible powers of retention and analytical expertise, who journeyed
tirelessly to collect hundreds of thousands of narrations. They distinguished
the true words of precious wisdom from the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu
‘alaihi wa sallam) from those corrupted by weak memories, or from forgeries by
unscrupulous liars, or from the statements of thousands of scholars,
companions, and others. They achieved this through precise attention to the
words narrated and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands
of reporters of hadith.

The Importance of Authentication

It is unfortunate but true that many statements will continue to be attributed
to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) although the person quoting them
may have no idea what the specialists in the science of hadith
(al-muhaddithoon) have ruled regarding them. They therefore contravene the
authenticated and widely narrated stern warnings from the Prophet (sallallaahu
‘alaihi wa sallam) against attributing unsound and incorrect statements to him.
The muhddithoon have employed a methodology to assess the types of narrations
to sort out the authentic and genuine from the mistaken and fabricated.

A hadith is composed of the text (matn) and the chain of reporters (isnaad). Of
course in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) the
companions would refer to him directly. The next generation (taabi’oon)
followed suit by quoting the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) through
the companions (sahaabah) and some would omit the intermediate authority. This
latter type of report came later to be known as mursal. Missing links made
necessary the need to verify each isnaad as time passed. Another very important
reason was the deliberate fabrication of ahadith by various sects which
appeared among the Muslims in order to support their views.

As time passed, more reports were involved in each isnaad and so the situation
demanded strict discipline for the acceptance of ahadith. The rules of this
discipline are known as mustalah al-hadith. The early scholars of hadith were
very meticulous though their terminology would sometimes differ and their
principles began to be written down. Later scholars deduced many of their
criteria from careful study of early scholars works such as Al-Bukhaari. Major
writings were produced by the scholars in mustalah al-hadith, some of which are
used to this day.

Classifications of hadith

The following are some broad classifications of the hadith in accordance with
their status. We hope to explain each in more detail in future articles, in
shaa Allah:

l According to the reference to a particular authority such as the Prophet
(sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) a companion or a taabi’ee (successor). These
hadith are called marfoo’, mauqoof, and maqtoo’ (elevated, stopped and severed
respectively).

l According to the links in the chain such as whether the chain of reporters is
interrupted or uninterrupted. These ahadith are called musnad, muttasil,
munqati’, mu’allaq, mu’dal and mursal.

l According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnaad
(chain) such as mutawaatir and aahaad, the latter which is further subdivided
into ghareeb, ‘azeez and mash-hoor.

l According to the manner in which the hadith has been reported such as using
the words ‘an (on the authority of), haddathanaa (he narrated to us),
akhbaranaa (he informed us), sami’tu (I heard). In this category falls the
discussion about mudallas and musalsal ahadith.

l According to the nature of the matn (text) and the isnaad (chain). For
example if there was an addition made by a reliable reporter or opposition by a
lesser authority to a more reliable one. Texts containing vulgar expressions,
unreasonable remarks or obviously erroneous statements were rejected by the
muhaddithoon. If an expression was proved to be an addition by a reporter it
was also appropriately classified.

l According to a hidden defect found in the isnaad or text which may be
slightly different than those mentioned previously.

l According to the reliability and memory of the reporters. This is actually
crucial to making a correct final judgment on a hadith.

Rijaal Al hadith

Mustalah al-hadith is strongly associated with rijaal al-hadith, which is the
study of the reporters of hadith. In scrutinizing the reporters of a hadith,
authenticating or disparaging remarks made by recognized experts from among the
tabi’oon and those after them were found to be a great help. Reporters who were
unanimously agreed upon as being “Imaam (leader)”, “Haafith (preserver)”,
reliable or trustworthy may contribute to a saheeh or sound isnaad. Those
chains containing narrators described as “Abandoned (by the muhaddithoon)”, or
“Liar, used to fabricate hadith” are likely to be considered very weak (da’eef
jiddan) or fabricated (maudoo’). Finally those chains containing reporters
described as “weak” or “makes mistakes” will be considered weak (da’eef).
Several weak reporters relating the same hadith will however often increase the
rank of the hadith to the level of ‘good’ (hasan). If there are contradictory
statements about any reporter then a verdict has to be arrived at only after an
in-depth analysis ascertaining the reasons for the comments.

Such remarks go back to a host of successors up through the time of the six
most trusted muhaddithoon, a period covering the first three centuries of
Islam. Many huge and detailed works were done in this field and a number of
muhaddithoon specialized in gathering information specifically about the
reporters of the collections of Al-Bukhaari (d. 256), Muslim (d. 261), Abu
Dawood (d. 275), AtTirmidhee (d. 279) and An-Nisaa’i (d. 303).

Further Branches of Mustalah Al-hadith

There are actually several more categories of hadith which go beyond the scope
of this article. However, we pray that what we have related is sufficient to at
least illustrate to the reader the efforts to authenticate the ahadith are
indeed extremely detailed and thorough leaving ‘no stone unturned’. This level
of authentication is nearly unmatched in any other discipline and indeed the
scientific methodology employed by these scholars came to be used extensively
by non-Muslim scholars in other fields of discipline. This method has
unfortunately not been employed by the religious scholars of other faiths which
leaves gaping holes in any effort to authenticate purported ‘divine’ or ‘holy’
statements in their respective source works.

It is worth mentioning that studies have also been undertaking as to the
underlying causes of fabricated hadith, such as those mentioned by Dr. Suhaib
Hassan. Eight of these causes are listed as follows:

l Political differences

l Factions based on issue of creed

l Fabrications by zanaadiqah (disbelievers spreading heretical beliefs under
the guise of Islam)

l Fabrications by story tellers

l Fabrications by ignorant ascetics

l Prejudice in favor of town, race or a particular imaam

l Inventions for personal motives

l Proverbs turned into ahadith

Rest Assured And Thank Allah

We thank Allah Ta’aala for the gift He has afforded the Muslim nation through
the scholars who had foresight and worked hard to preserve the words of the
Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi was sallam). We ask for His blessing upon those
who continue this work to this day. It is precisely through the work of such
men that deviations are exposed. This of course leads to such scholars
undergoing much trial at the hands of those who - having built an entire
doctrine or viewpoint around weak and fabricated traditions - resort to
personal attacks, libel and slander. They do so to turn their ignorant
followers away from guidance and possibly exposing their deviations.

Finally we would like to list the six collections of hadith that are considered
the most authentic or authoritative.

l Saheeh Al-Buhkaari by Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ismaeel Ibn Ibraheem Ibn
Al-Mugheerah al-Ja’faee from Al-Bukhaara, more popularly known as Imam
Al-Bukhaari (b. 194 - d. 256 AH). Considered the most authentic book after the
Qur’aan itself.

l Saheeh Muslim by Abul Husain Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaaj An-Nisaapuri (b. 204 - d.
261 AH). Generally recognized as equally authoritative as Al-Bukhaari with only
slight differences in his criterion of acceptance of certain hadith thus giving
it second in rank of authority. It is considered by many as superior to Saheeh
AlBukhaari in its arrangement or the hadith.

l Sunan of Abu Dawood by Abu Dawood Sulaiman Ibn Al-Aash’ath Al-Azdi
As-Sijistani (b. 202 - d. 275 AH)

l Sunan of At-Tirmidhee by Muhammad Ibn ‘Isaa Ibn Saura Ibn Musa Ibn Ad-Dahhak
At-Tirmidhee (b. 209 - d. 279 AH)

l Sunan of An-Nisaa’i by Abu Abdur-Rahmaan Ahmed Ibn Shu’aib Ibn Ali Ibn Sinaan
Ibn Bahr Al-Khurasaani An-Nisaa’i (b. 215 - d. 303 AH).

l Sunan of Ibn Maajah by Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Yazeed Ar-Rabee’ (Ibn
Maajah) (b. 209 - 273 AH)

May Allah be pleased with them all, Ameen.
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aliziad_sali
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Number of posts : 98
Localisation : Abu-bakr Assidiq Islamic Centre, Dubai U.A.E.
Emploi : "one GOD on creed, under the flag of laailahailallah.."
Loisirs : - at the end of time, the sun will rise from the west -
Registration date : 2007-07-20

PostSubject: a video lecture from bro. nouman ali khan...   Thu May 14, 2009 12:33 am

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaS5NsvZ4yM



Reported on the authority of Jabir Ibn.Abdillah, that the Nabi Sallallahi alaihi wassallam said:

“LAA
TA’ALLAMUL ‘ILMA LITUB-HUU BIHIL ‘ULAMA’, WA LAA LITUMAARU
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in the service of islam,
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( aznas0429@yahoo.com )


Last edited by aliziad_sali on Thu May 14, 2009 1:47 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : editing my reasons..)
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